VOLUME 4 ISSUE 2, PUBLISHED AUGUST 2022
Study of Molecular Diversity in Celosia argentea Cristata (L.) Mutants using RAPD Markers
Abubakar, A., Falusi, A. O., Daudu, O. A. Y., Kolo, J. T., Salaudeen, J. A. and Chikwendu, C. S.
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202202002/56
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2022, 04(02), 01 – 09
Induced mutagenesis is a method of creating genetic variability in crops for its improvement. Mutant lines of Celosia argentea, irradiated with sodium azide and fast neutron were evaluated for genetic variability patterns. Mutant lines were collected from the Department of Plant Biology, Federal University of Technology, Minna and analysed using five RAPD primers at the Biosciences Laboratory, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. Data generated were subjected to UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis. Five RAPD primers generated 21 amplification bands, with all the bands being 100% polymorphic. Allelic frequency per primer ranged from 0.40 in Primer (OPH05, OPB17 and OPB04) to 0.70 (OPT17) with an average frequency of 0.48 per primer. The highest polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.70 was generated by primer OPH05 with an average PIC of 0.55 per primer. The clustering of the mutants and their parent into five distinct genetic groups by UPGMA dendrogram and four groups by principal component analysis was not based on the mutagenic agent used confirming the high level of induced diversity among the treatments. Therefore, Sodium Azide and Fast Neutron Irradiation are effective mutagens for inducing useful variability in Celosia argentea.
Effect of Insecticide Application Rates on Population Density of Orseolia oryzivora in Relation to its Parasitoids on Rice
Mohammed, I. G., Isong, A., Shama, A. M., Osipitan, A. A., Pitan, O. R. and Adigbo, S. O.
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202202008/62
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2022, 04(02), 10 – 18
Africa rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzivora) is a major insect pest of rice and the use of insecticides in its control poses danger to the environment and destroys biodiversity. The experiment was conducted to evaluate effect of lambda-cyhalothrin and carbofuran rates on population density of O. oryzivora in relation to its parasitoids on rice. The treatments were arranged in split-plot and fitted in to Randomized Complete Block Design, replicated three times. Observations were made on tiller number per hill, plant height, days to 50% flowering, % incidence, % severity, % parasitism of O. oryzivora, panicle /m2, grains / panicle and yield of rice. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance and significant means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at p<0.05. The result showed that Rice plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin at rate of 1L/ha, 0.75 L/ha, Carbofuran at rate of 10.0 kg/ha and 7.5 kg/ha had higher yield (2.90-2.97 tonnes/ha) compared with control (2.55 tonnes/ha). They also had lowest incidence (2.09-2.64%) and severity (2.40-3.72%) of O. oryzivora compared with 8.26-17.17% and 9.93- 14.72% in plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin at 0.50 L/ha and control respectively. The parasitism of O. oryzivora was high on rice plants treated with Carbofuran and the untreated ones (1.16-1.74) compared with other application of lambda-cyhalothrin.
Kenaf Production as Affected by Two Pre-emergence Herbicides in Sudano-Sahelian Region of Nigeria
Bukar, S., Kajidu, Y. B., Bassi, J. A. and Aliyu, I.
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202202001/43
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2022, 04(02), 19 – 26
Field experiment was conducted at the University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm in the Sudano Sahelian region of Nigeria during the 2018 and 2019 rainy seasons on the performance of Kenaf grown under two pre-emergence herbicides. The experiment consisted of 11 treatments from two pre-emergence herbicides of Butachlor and Pendimethalin each at the rate of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 Kg a.i./ha and weedy check laid out on a Strip-plot Design in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replicates. Parameters measured were crop injury score 1-9, number of leaves-plant, plant height, fibre yield, weed dry matter and weed control efficiency. The result revealed that Pendimethalin at 2.0-2.5 Kg a.i./ha and Butachlor at 2.5 Kg a.i./ha were most injurious to kanaf plants. Growth parameters such as the number of leaves per plant and plant height were best at Butachlor at 1.5 Kg a.i./ha. Fibre yield was best at Butachlor at 1.5-2.0 Kg a.i./ha. Pendimthalin at 2.0-2.5 Kg a.i./ha and weedy check have recorded higher Weed dry matter and Butachlor at higher rate 1.5-2.5 Kg a.i./ha efficiently controlled weeds 80-89%.
Effect of Anchor Borrowers’ Programme on the Income of Smallholder Maize Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria
Bello, M. A., Ojo, B. J. and Olalere, I. T.
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202202004/58
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2022, 04(02), 27 – 33
The paper investigated the effect of the Anchor Borrowersˈ Credit Scheme on the income of the smallholder maize farmers using the survey data obtained from 120 maize farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, Propensity Score Matching (PSM), Average Treatment effect on Treated (ATT), and Ordinary Least Square regression. Employing descriptive statistics, Farmers were characterised based on their socioeconomic attributes. Using the Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and Average Treatment effect on Treated (ATT), it was discovered that the scheme had a positive and significant effect on the income of the maize farmers, although this effect was the same among all beneficiaries of the scheme. The Ordinary Least Square regression was used to check for the differential effect of the scheme among the benefiting farmers and was found that the positive effect varies with the socioeconomic attributes of the farmers. The results showed a general improvement in the income of the farmers as a result of the scheme. However, the effect of the improvement was higher on beneficiaries with higher educational level, more farming experience as well as beneficiaries with larger farm size. The study findings provided documentation for policymakers for improving the delivery system of the scheme.
Application of Receptor Models on Surface Water Quality and Source Apportionment
Yunusa, A., Abdulrahman, N. and Anumiri, C.
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202202005/59
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2022, 04(02), 34 – 42
Surface water plays an important role in carrying off different water wastes thereby affecting water quality used for different purposes. The Receptor Model (RM) development as a technique in the management of River water was used in this study, in identifying, separating and quantifying the major sources of water wastes flowing into River Musa, Bida, Nigeria. Twelve water variables were used in Principal Component Analysis. The generated variables of loaded components were used as independent variables and the Water Quality Index (WQI) as the dependent variable to estimate the quantity of identified pollutants sources using the Multiple Linear Regression Model (MLR). According to Canadian Council Ministers of Environments Water Quality Index (CCME WQI), the results determined for the five sample stations (Edokota location, Musa bridge location, Bida/Minna location, Ciriko location and Army Barrack location) were 74.4, 72.8, 64.6, 47.6, and 51.6 respectively. Among the five locations, three were investigated to be marginal and the remaining two were fair in rank. The principal component analysis (PCA) was adopted to separate the identified three major waste sources flowing into the river to be agricultural, municipal and industrial wastes. Pollutant levels were determined to be 0.936, 0.457 and 0.104 using RM at a high value of R2 (0.911). Agricultural waste was predicted to be the strongest pollutant contributor in the model, followed by municipal and the least contributor is industrial waste. It is strongly recommended that periodic monitoring and evaluation of the river water quality is carried out within the study area using the receptor model
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National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, Niger State, Nigeria