VOLUME 3 ISSUE 3, PUBLISHED DECEMBER 2021
Effects of Ginger and Garlic on the Proximate and Mineral Compositions of Differently Processed Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Gana, A. B., Yusuf, D. U., Ibrahim, R., Bake, G. G., Iriobe, T., Jega, I. S. and Abubakar, F. N
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202102011
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2021, 03(03), 1–9
Freshly caught Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) samples were obtained from Sabiyel Lake in Aliero Local Government Area of Kebbi State. Oreochromis niloticus samples were descaled, degutted, cut into chunks and rinsed with clean water at Fisheries Laboratory, Department of Forestry and Fisheries, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero. The samples were subjected to different treatments designated as; T1 (oven drying), T2 (Frying), T3 (smoking), T4 (oven-dried + 5% ginger-garlic), T5 (Fried + 5% ginger-garlic), T6 (smoked + 5% ginger-garlic), T7 (oven-dried + 10% ginger-garlic), T8 (Fried + 10% ginger-garlic), T9 (smoked + 10% ginger-garlic), T10 (oven-dried + 15% ginger-garlic), T11 (Fried + 15% ginger-garlic), T12 (smoked + 15% ginger-garlic). The processed samples were taken to Agric. Chemical Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodio University Sokoto, Nigeria, for the determination of proximate and mineral compositions. The treatments were analysed in 2 phases: at week 0 for the first phase of analysis and after 8 weeks of storage in an airtight plastic container at room temperature. The samples were then taken to the laboratory for the second phase of analysis. This study revealed that processing (oven drying, frying and smoking) of Oreochromis niloticus with ginger-garlic gave high nutritive content after 8 weeks of storage and thus might prevent the use of obnoxious substances as a means of preservation and substantially improve consumer’s satisfaction and quality fish protein intake.
Estimates of Heritability and Genetic Advance for Yield Components of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) under Drought Stress Conditions
Sheidu, A., Igyuve, T. M. and Ochigbo, A. E.
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202102012
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2021, 03(03), 10–17
The study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farms, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. Five Cowpea genotypes (FUAMPEA-1, IT99K-573-1-1, SAMPEA-16, SAMPEA-8, BIU LOCAL) were crossed and advanced to F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 populations using bi-parental mating design. The six generations were evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Significant test of the mean performances among the entries showed significant differences among the generations for the characters studied. Wide ranges of narrow sense heritability (18 to 79%), broad sense heritability (21 to 92%) and genetic advance (5.7 to 24.1%) were obtained for characters studied. Broad and narrow sense heritability as well as genetic advance was moderate to high for most of the characters studied such as days to 50% flowering, plant height, days to pod maturity, number of seeds per pod, number of pods per plant, hundred seed weight, root length and grain yield for the three sets of cowpea crosses. The results also revealed the possibility of exploitation for grain yield and drought tolerance in the crosses studied.
Assessment of Safety Measures and Costs Effect of Herbicide Usage among farmers in Mokwa Local Government Area, Niger State)
Tiamiyu, S. A., Ahmed, B. S., Alawode, V. O. and Waribugo, S. C.
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202102018
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2021, 03(03), 18 – 24
Weed is one of the most important constraints that limit food production. Checking weeds with herbicides could be harmful if safety precautions are not followed by users. This study assessed the use of safety practices and costs associated with herbicide use among farmers in Mokwa Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique were used to select 160 respondents that were interviewed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and costs addition. Results revealed that contact (Paraquat), selective (2,4-Dimethylamine), non-selective systemic (Glyphosates) and mixture of (2-4-Dimethylamine) and (Glyphosate or Paraquat) were used by respondents to control weeds. The rates of herbicide application ranged from 2.0 and 3.8 litres per hectare with a mean rate of 3.1 litres per hectare. The mean index of Safety practices was 0.68, an indication of high use of safety practices. Use of hand gloves, face masks, eye glasses and rain boots was low. Herbicide containers and left over herbicide solutions were not properly disposed by a larger proportion of respondents. Costs of herbicide usage for major crops cultivated by respondents varies from N4,859 to N7,025 per hectare. Implementation of extension programmes on safety measures in usage of herbicides and sensitization on farmers on protective tools usage were recommended.
Wheat and White Sorghum Supernatants as Alternatives to Calotropis procera Extract in Making Cheese
Ayanniyi, N. N., Adeyemi, S. A., Gbanguba, U. A., Akinleye, S. B., Alfa, M., Eze, J. N., Umar, A. and Salihu, B. Z.
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202103002
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2021, 03(03), 25 – 34
Plant coagulant, animal rennet and microbial coagulant are used as milk coagulating agents resulting in different cheese products. However, emphasis has been on the use of plant coagulant as opposed to that from animal source, rennet. Alternative milk coagulants are therefore investigated instead of animal enzymes. The use of vegetable extracts as milk coagulants has evolved in soft cheese processing. This study explored the potential of plant coagulants as an ideal choice in the production of cheese. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the coagulants on the yield and proximate composition of cheese. To compare them with cheese coagulated with supernatants from fermented white sorghums (WSS) and wheat (WS) in the laboratory. The results were also compared with cheese coagulated with Calotropis procera leaf extract (CPE) in terms of yield, the percentage composition of total solids (TS), fat, protein, lactose ash and the pH of the cheeses. The same parameters were evaluated in the whey (by-product). The minerals, pH and the proximate components in WS and WSS were also compared. Maximum cheese yield was recorded at equal volumes of milk and coagulants. CPE was superior to these other two considering the constituents in all three cheeses. The chemical composition of CPE coagulant was superior to WS and WSS in terms of TS, fat, protein and ash but lower in moisture content compared with the other two. Protein content was higher in cheese prepared with CPE (22%) about six times the amount in raw milk and the least was WSS (12%). Moreover, the cheese made with CPE had the highest yield (31.76g) and differed significantly (P< 0.05) from WSS (28.87g) and WS (29.70g). Also, cheese made with WS (30.57g/ml) had the highest whey volume compared with WSS (28.11g/ml). However, increasing levels of each supernatant with a constant volume of raw milk (100ml) produced higher cheese yield at 100ml of the supernatant and 100ml of milk. Whey from WSS was the most acidic (5.85) of all the three produced but with increased acidity as the storage days increased. The study revealed that cheese with high nutritional quality can be produced with CPE, WSS and WS. The use of equal volume of coagulant (WSS or WS) to raw milk would give optimal cheese yield. This will promote the utilization of WSS and WS, which is naturally left as the waste product.
Growth and Chevon Characteristics of Indigenous Breeds of Goat (Buck) in Nigeria
Ayanniyi, N. N., Olusola, O. O., Adeyemi, S. A., Akinleye, S. B., Alfa M., Eze, J. N., Umar A. and Ajadi, A. A.
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202103004
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2021, 03(03), 35 – 41
Keywords: Adaptive capacity, Climate change, Composite index, Sensitivity, Vulnerability
Vulnerability assessments to climate change are a possible criterion for adaptation and have a long history on multidisciplinary research. Identification and assessing the degree of vulnerability as a result of climate change is an essential pre-requisite for reducing climate change impacts. The study focuses on vulnerability of rice farmers to climate change in Kogi State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from primary and secondary sources with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to 123 rice farmers from across the four agricultural zones in the State. A total of 15 environmental and socio-economic indicators were identified and analyzed to measure vulnerability status in the agricultural zones. Composite Climate Change Vulnerability Index computed from the hazards, sensitivity and adaptive capacity components revealed that all the rice farmers’ were vulnerable to climate change but vary in the degrees of vulnerability. Scores of Exposure-Sensitivity Index (ESI) suggest that rice farmers in Owolikpa and Igalaogba were most prone and susceptible to climate change whereas, Baganna, Ikande, Odoepe, and Iluke were least exposed and sensitive to climate change. Kpancehe, Kakanda, Girinya, Eggan,and Aiyetoro were categorized under very high to high degree of vulnerability while Iya, Baganna and Echa were rated low vulnerable to climate change. These prioritized areas, based on rank and degree of vulnerability, should be given immediate consideration, and measures should be taken by internalizing region specific needs to address the growing challenge of climate change.
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National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, Niger State, Nigeria