VOLUME 2 ISSUE 2, PUBLISHED SEPTEMBER 2020
Assessment of Fungi and Aflatoxin-B1 Contaminations in Some Cereals from Nasko and Yangalu, Niger State, Nigeria
Salahu, M. S., Gbodi, T. A., Nma, A. M., Kutigi, U. H. and Yusuf, M.
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2020, 02(02), 42 – 49
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunosuppressive agent, produced as a secondary metabolite by fungi of the genus Aspergillus on a variety of foods and food products. The high rate of cancer in Nigeria has become a thing of public concern. This has been linked to the contamination of foodstuffs by AFB1 produced by toxigenic fungi. Thus, there is a need to constantly monitor foodstuff contamination by fungi and their secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was to identify fungal contaminants and estimate levels of AFB1 in selected cereals. Two grams of maize, millet and sorghum each were collected from Nasko and Yangalu markets of Magama and Kontagora Local Government Areas (LGAs) respectively in Niger State, Nigeria. The samples were pulverized and divided into two portions. One portion was used for the identification of fungal contaminants and the other portion for AFB1 analysis. Isolation of fungi from all samples was done using the serial dilution method and isolates were morphologically identified. AFB1 was extracted using a solvent/solvent separation technique and column chromatography for purification. Thin layer chromatographic method was used to estimate AFB1 content by fluorescence intensity. The main fungi species isolated from these samples using serial dilution method were from the genus of Aspergillus. The samples studied from Nasko market showed that AFB1 was present in maize, millet and sorghum at the concentration of 13.50±0.58μg/kg, 33.28±0.40μg/kg and 13.5±0.58μg/kg respectively. Likewise in Yangalu market its concentration in maize was 27.00±0.58μg/kg, millet 6.80±0.46μg/kg and sorghum 33.28±0.40μg/kg. The study revealed that the concentrations of AFB1 in the sampled millet from Nasko and the sampled maize and sorghum from Yangalu were higher than the maximum permissible intake limit (20μg/kg) and therefore unsafe for human consumption.
Microbial Load Evaluation of Tilapia guineensis from Two Brackish Water Habitats in Nigeria
Abdullahi, M. M., Ogbonne, F. C., Ayaobu–Cookey, I. K., Ajijo, M. R. and Matanmi, M. A.
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2020, 02(02), 50 – 57
This study was carried out to investigate the microbial load and diversity of bacterial species present in the water samples, skin and gills of Tilapia guineensis from brackish water habitat in Buguma, (River State) and Awoye (Ondo State), Nigeria. Water and thirty fish samples were aseptically obtained from each habitat. The water and fish samples were aseptically transported from the two locations to the Aquaculture Laboratory of Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Lagos, where the skin and the gills of the fish samples were aseptically swabbed for microbial analysis. Total bacteria load from Buguma station had a range of 3.3 – 8.5 x 106 cfu/ml in the water samples, 2.4 – 7.6 x 105 cfu/ml in the skin and 2.1 – 5.7 x 106 cfu/ml in the gills. While total bacteria load from Awoye station ranged from 2.3 – 8.2 x 107 cfu/ml in the water samples, 1.5 – 7.6 x 107 cfu/ml in the skin and 2.1 – 6.4 x 106 cfu/ml in the gills. The highest bacterial count was observed in the water sample from Awoye (6 x 107 cfu/ml) while the least bacterial count was obtained in the skin of Tilapia guineensis from Buguma (5 x 105 cfu/ml). There was variation in the diversity of bacterial flora from the two study sites. A total of twenty (20) species of bacteria were isolated from the gills, skin of Tilapia guineensis and water samples from the two brackish water habitats. The isolated bacteria were mostly Gram negative. The occurrence of these potential pathogenic bacteria in the skin and gills of the fish and the water samples calls for public concern. Therefore, hygienic measures should be employed during the handling and processing of the fishes from the brackish water.
Assessment of Sesame Value Chain Actors in Jigawa, Nigeria
Katanga, Y. N., Gama, E. N. and Abba, A.
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202002016
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2020, 02(02), 58 – 74
The study assessed sesame value chain actors in Jigawa, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed in the selection of the actors. Sixty (60) sesame farmers were randomly selected at the entry point of the upstream level. While in the downstream level, 78 actors which comprised 36 traders, 36 processors and 6 exporters were selected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The results showed the mean ages of 43, 45, 39 and 45 years for farmers, traders, processors and exporters respectively. Mean household sizes of 12 and 5 persons were obtained for the farmers and exporters while traders and processors have mean household sizes of 11 and 8 respectively. An average year of experience in sesame business of 9 and 8 years was obtained for farmers and processors respectively, while traders and exporters have an average of 10 years each in sesame businesses. Furthermore, the result showed that, age, marital status, household size, years of education and years of experiences were found to statistically influence (P= 0.05) the quantity of sesame produced or traded. Challenges of the value chain actors include inadequate and high cost of inputs, price uncertainty/low price and policy issues among others; however, the study recommended the provision of improved varieties with desired characteristics, well-managed contract transaction and a guarantee minimum price for all sesame enterprises along the chain.
Economic Analysis of Nigerian Live Ornamental Fish Export
Ambali, O. Y., Ayinde, O. E. and Sulaimon, T. T.
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2020, 02(02), 24 – 34
Nigeria is undoubtedly endowed with mammoth species of ornamental fish that are of high premium and command a better price in the world market. Thus, this study examined the export of Nigerian live ornamental fish from economic stand point with the aims of evaluating the structural distribution of the commodity traded among the ornamental fish exporters, determining the profitability of ornamental fish export and examining the factors influencing ornamental fish trade at the firm level.The sampling frame for the study was the registered members of the Association of Ornamental fish Farmers and Exporters of Nigeria (AOFFEN). A random sampling technique was used to elicit data from the respondents in July 2017. Primary data were collected using well-structured questionnaires administered to 40 randomly selected respondents. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, marketing margin analysis, return on investment, Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results of the analysis revealed that the estimated average marketing margin per box of ornamental fish export was $74.04 and the distribution of traded commodities among the fish exporters was oligopolistic with Gini coefficient of 0.75. Firm size, trading experience, number of countries traded with and number of commodities traded significantly (0<0.05) determined the level of export. From this study, it may be suggested that measures to create a more competitive market among live fish exporters should be put in place.
Effect of Value Chain Development Programme on Small-Scale Rice Farmers in Niger State, Nigeria
Ndanitsa, M. A., Musa, S. E. Ndako, N. and Mohammed, D.
Crossref DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202002010
BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, 2020, 02 (02), 84 – 96
Keywords: International fund, Value chain, Food security, Small-scale, Rice farmers
This study examined the effect of the International Fund for Agricultural Development Value Chain Development Programme (IFAD-VCDP) on the small scale rice farmers’ income in Niger State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to sample respondents. Three segments (Treatment, Spill-over and control group) from 18 villages and 36 farmers’ cooperative groups were consided for the study. A total of 110 participants, 90 of spill-over groups and 95 of control groups were sampled. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of socio-economic characteristics showed that an appreciable number of respondents were in their active and energetic age, male, married with moderate household size and had atleast one form of formal education. The cost and return analysis showed that rice production under the IFAD in the study area was profitable. It may be concluded that IFAD had impacted positively the income status of participating rice farmers in the study area. From this finding, it may be recommended that government at all levels and non-governmental organizations should ensure continuity and sustainability of the programme.
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National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, Niger State, Nigeria